About 30 to 35 percent of the casein (equivalent to two teaspoons per quart of milk) is beta-casein, of which there are several varieties, determined by the genes of the cow. According to the literature, more than 10,000 years ago, and before they were domesticated, cows produced only the A2 beta casein protein and not the A1 beta casein protein. Among the caseins, beta casein is the second most abundant protein (about one-third of the caseins) and has an excellent nutritional balance of amino acids. There have been claims in the press that A2 milk is easier for humans to digest, improves health and lowers the risk for some diseases. ISI had paid A2 $500,000 in license fees by the end of 2004.  The EFSA report, released in 2009, found that "a cause and effect relationship is not established between the dietary intake of BCM7 (beta-casomorphin-7), related peptides or their possible protein precursors and non-communicable diseases". Milk containing predominantly A2 beta casein is as safe and wholesome as any other milk. Two major protein groups are present in cow’s milk – approximately 82 percent of protein is casein and approximately 18 percent is whey protein. The 2015 U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends three servings a day of dairy foods as part of a healthy, balanced diet. For more information about the CDRF, visit www.cdrf.org. Louise Thomas for Unlimited. All cow’s milk provides complete nutrition for infants. A2 milk only contains the A2 variant of beta-casein protein. , The percentage of the A1 and A2 beta-casein protein varies between herds of cattle, and also between countries and provinces. However, remember that selecting from the top Net Merit bulls is essential to maximize farm profitability, so be sure to check out that list when placing an emphasis on A2 genetics. A2 milk is cow’s milk that contains only the A2 variant of beta-casein protein.  If it were indeed true that BCM-7 is harming humans, this would be an important public health issue, as well as a commercial opportunity. It contains the essential micronutrients needed for growth and development of human health, as well as for the neonate animal.  In the middle of 2003, both founders of the company died. Current science supports the continued consumption of cow’s milk and dairy products.  A2 Corporation also petitioned the Food Standards Australia New Zealand regulatory authority to require a health warning on ordinary milk.  A2 Corporation focused on recovering from the deaths of its founders organizationally and financially, relied on its New Zealand licensees to develop the New Zealand market, and turned its focus to developing overseas markets.
 In June 2005, ISI and A2 Corporation agreed to form a joint venture, A2 Milk Company LLC; A2 Corporation invested $400,000, and ISI assigned the license agreement to the new company.  Reviews conducted in 2005 and 2009 found no demonstration that consuming milk with A1 casein causes diabetes. A2 milk appears to be all the rage in the dairy industry today. In commercials on TV, online, at the grocery store and even on the farm, many people are talking about A2 milk. Stuart A. Slorach, "Food safety risk management in New Zealand", page 6. These contracts were protected under New Zealand law by the Dairy Industry Restructuring Act of 2001.  The litigation threatened New Zealand's economy and international reputation as at the time Fonterra was responsible for 20% of New Zealand's exports. Jersey, Guernsey, Normande and Brown Swiss breeds have a higher percentage of A2 genes than Holstein. , A2 Corporation licensed patents filed in the 1990s by the New Zealand Dairy Board, and filed its own patents on genetic tests to determine what form of beta-casein cows produce in milk, and concerning supposed adverse health consequences of milk containing both the A1 and A2 proteins. -Gonca Pasin, RD, Ph.D., is the executive director at the California Dairy Research Foundation (CDRF), based in Davis, Ca. A seven-amino acid peptide, beta-casomorphin-7, can be cut away from the A1-beta-casein protein by those enzymes, but the enzymes cannot cut the A2 protein at that location, so BCM-7 is not formed from A2 proteins.
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